Cesium, A Critical Metal and an Opportunity for Avalon Advanced Materials

As the only geologist who has seen and worked on the two largest known Cesium deposits in the world; the Tanco (Tantalum Mining Corporation of Canada) Lithium-Cesium-Tantalum (“LCT”) Pegmatite Mine in Canada and the Taron Epithermal Cesium deposit in Argentina, and with 46 years of experience in rare element geology and markets, I was invited to share my knowledge and experience on the importance of Cesium with InvestorIntel readers.

Cesium (or Caesium) has mainly been recovered from the rare alumino-silicate mineral Pollucite (Cs,Na)2Al2Si4O12·2H2O), a zeolite mineral named after Pollux, one of the Gemini twins in Roman mythology. It is a little known alkali element with enormous potential for new applications. This is because, as the most electro-positive naturally found element (aside from synthetized Francium) in the periodic table, it forms exceptionally stable compounds. The best known example of which is a commercial application is Cesium formate, a high density fluid with the same viscosity as water but 2.2 times as dense. It is used in high pressure, high temperature deep oil & gas well drilling as a coolant and lubricant. It is eco-friendly and can be readily recycled.

Cesium compounds also have applications as catalysts in plastics and petroleum refining, medical isotopes, photo-emissive devices, experimental magneto-hydrodynamic electricity generation, high accuracy atomic clocks for 5G communications and GPS navigation systems, specialty glasses, ion-propulsion rocket motors, high-density alkaline batteries, and coatings for solar cells. As a dense medium, Cesium formate is also used in metallurgical testing and to separate DNA. It is well known for medical applications and artificially produced radioactive isotopes used in treating various types of cancers. It can also be used to sequester those radio-isotopes and other radioactive wastes.

During my years (1977 – 1983) working with Tanco at Bernic Lake, Manitoba, we would donate our pollucite at no charge to any research laboratory interested in finding other new uses for cesium which could create new market opportunities for Tanco. We were sending large samples to Germany and they would mysteriously disappear; rumored to go behind the Iron Curtain through East Berlin. There was much speculation at that time that it was being tested by the Russians for mobile magneto-hydrodynamic power generation for beam weapons. Consequently, Tanco stopped these shipments at the request of the Canadian and U.S. governments.

In 1996-7 Tanco, having been bought by Cabot Corporation in 1993, commissioned a new Cesium formate plant designed to produce 500 barrels/day and subsequently expanded to 700 barrels/day for increased production including other cesium chemicals. By 2002 it was producing 8400 tonnes of Cesium formate product which were shipped in 1 cubic metre plastic totes containing about 1860 kgs.

In 2013, the Tanco underground mining operation began to experience falls of loose rock because of instability of the Mine’s crown pillar. Because this part of the mine was under a lake, risk of a major collapse forced closure of Tanco’s cesium underground mining operations. In 2019 Tanco was sold by Cabot Corp. to Sinomine Resource Group Co., Ltd. of Beijing, China (“Sinomine”).

The Bikita Minerals’ (PVT) pegmatite in Zimbabwe, the only other significant past producer of pollucite, did not process it but sold it as hand-sorted mineral concentrates. Albemarle in Langelsheim, Germany bought Bikita pollucite to make a host of cesium chemicals and recently, Tanco, as Sinomine, was buying it too. Sinomine now also controls Bikita’s supply although Bikita’s pollucite ore stockpiles are now largely exhausted. Pioneer Resources’ small Sinclair pollucite deposit in Western Australia was commissioned in 2018 and was mined out by 2020. Its pollucite was sold to Tanco and hence Sinomine.

This leaves Avalon Advanced Materials Inc. (TSX: AVL | OTCQB: AVLNF) (“Avalon”) as the only near term and potential producer of pollucite in North America, from its Lilypad Cesium Project in Northwestern Ontario.  The Lilypad area hosts a field of LCT pegmatite dykes containing significant pollucite mineralization. Other LCT pegmatite resources in many parts of the world, including Namibia and Afghanistan, would also have potential to recover pollucite and by-product cesium from other minerals such as the lithium mica, lepidolite.

The Taron Cesium deposit in NW Argentina hosts a significant and open cesium resource where the cesium is contained in a unique hydrated basic ferric arsenate mineral called pharmacosiderite, (K,Cs)Fe4(AsO4)3(OH)4·(6-7)H2O, and like pollucite is another zeolite-type mineral. Recent work has patented a unique extraction process with promising economics to recover the cesium.

As cesium is not an exchange-traded commodity it is difficult to get price information on the various forms of cesium products, although being in very short supply. The best known cesium product was the Cesium formate produced at Tanco and was actually leased to drilling companies, but prices weren’t reported. Oil drilling companies paid for using the Cesium formate and after it was recovered from drill holes, it was returned for rehabilitation, with the drilling company paying for any downhole losses.

Lepidico (ASX: LPD) is an Australian company looking at recovering cesium from their LCT pegmatite holdings in Namibia. Their JORC accredited Definitive Feasibility Study of 2020 showed Cesium formate having a value of $42,900 USD / tonne. Other chemical forms of cesium currently in demand include cesium carbonate and cesium hydroxide, which are reportedly attracting prices of up to $5,000 USD / kg in Asian markets because of scarcity of supply. Like other rare element commodities, product purity also impacts pricing as well as supply and demand.

An indication of Cesium markets is given by some reverse engineering of the Tanco Cesium Formate production. When Tanco’s Cesium formate plant opened, it had a nameplate capacity of 500 tonnes/year and then it expanded further to 700 tonnes/year. The first step on the way to producing cesium formate and other chemical compounds is the production of Cesium hydroxide. To that end, Tanco mined 205,180 tonnes at a feed grade of 13.27%. In turn, that would produce 272,274 tonnes of Cesium over 16 years or about 1063 tonnes a year for Cesium compounds.

Cesium has now been listed as a critical element by the United States and Canada; Tanco and its owner, Cabot Corp., once had control of the business. With China now in sole ownership of the world’s supply of pollucite, the cesium markets may be stressed accordingly until a new source of cesium has been developed. It is a great opportunity for Canada to take advantage of the cesium resources at Avalon’s Lilypad project.

A key next step toward creating a full supply chain in Canada would be to encourage more research and development on potential innovative new applications for cesium similar to what Tanco did with Cesium formate 25 years ago. There is a great potential for many new high technology applications of cesium which would enable new primary supply sources in Canada to start and grow into bigger businesses with the downstream value-added product opportunities.

Dave Trueman on the history of Russian interest in Afghanistan’s beryllium, lithium, tantalum and cesium deposits

Foreword from Jack Lifton: Today I want to introduce a new writer/reporter to the Investorintel audience. (Dr.) Dave Trueman is a Canadian born, raised, and educated geologist who was a pioneer in exploring for and finding commercial deposits of technology metals-as they have come to be called-not only in Canada but all over the world. Dave was exploring for lithium in Manitoba during the first lithium supply crisis and after that looking at lithium deposits in Afghanistan.  That was 45 years ago now. I’ll let Dave tell his story of those times, and let you be educated.

Dave Truman writes:

You might ask when did I first get involved in looking at lithium pegmatites and what inspired my interest?

I had been working for the Centre for Excellence in Precambrian Studies at the University of Manitoba while doing my Ph.D. fieldwork. I was asked in 1976 by Dr. Petr Cerny to research structural controls of the emplacements of granitic pegmatites and Tanco, the tantalum producer in Manitoba, threw their drilling databank at me. Now the Tanco pegmatite, amongst being one of the world’s largest, does not outcrop, being below Bernic Lake, Manitoba.

So I put together a geologic picture from the drill hole data and realized the south half of the pegmatite was missing. I told the company to drill a hole right in the center of what appeared to be a bullseye where the missing south half should be when Bernic Lake froze over in 1976. That started an array of drill holes that doubled Tanco’s Lithium resources, and Tanco offered me a job at Christmas.

And I stepped right into the world’s first Lithium crisis. The crisis was caused by the Tokamak fusion reactor which would burn lithium in producing pollution free energy. A mini-star, or the Sun, in principle.

The United States Geological Survey had published a paper questioning whether there was enough lithium in the world to feed various of the world’s proposed fusion reactors. We, as various authors divided the world up into domains in which we could quantify lithium resources. We did allay the shortage fears after we presented our findings at Corning New York in 1977.

Pardon my digression, but Tanco and the Bikita pegmatite in Zimbabwe respectively, were offering concentrates termed SQUI, an acronym for Spodumene-Quartz Intergrowth. SQUI’s main attribute was its low iron content  for zero expansion glass (from the freezer to the stovetop) and for pyroceramic (Pyrex) cookware. As potential producers, we were invited for a boardroom lunch served by butlers in livery c/w a cigar selection. Except, lunch was delayed by Bikita management which was hurrying to meet us after they landed, having flown from South Africa after missing their commuter flight from Zimbabwe.

They made their apologies for being late. It seems the Bikita mine had a good rapport with their black workers who they would educate and give increasing responsibility. Accordingly, when they joined the various local guerilla bands, they would leave Bikita alone. Nevertheless, Bikita staff lived in houses with mortar bunkers underneath, and the families were trained in FN machine guns; one of which was stored over the kitchen sink. The night before the Bikita team was supposed to come, a local animal, a Gnu, started rooting in one of their gardens. The racket of machine gun fire that ensued drove everyone into their bunkers. Unfortunately, a neighbor’s house caught the full blast of pyrophoric/tracer bullets and caught on fire. After hearing gunfire the local fire brigade didn’t respond.

Afghanistan memories:

In the 1970’s the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan, the  PDPA, had been cozying up to the USSR. The Russians had spent time mapping out Afghanistan and outlining oil, gas and mineral deposits and their reserves. With increasing dissatisfaction with the DPDA government in 1978, the Russians signed a support agreement for armed support of the PDPA if needed. In 1979 Russia invaded Afghanistan. It was widely believed that the Russians were attempting to take over the Hindu Kush and Pamir pegmatites where the strategic minerals were deposited and the key trade routes pass in Pakistan and India. The Russians had considered the area the world’s largest reserve of rare metals of beryllium, lithium, tantalum and cesium and shown below.

The United States began arming the Islamist Mujahedeen rebel forces which opposed both the Russians and Afghan governments and in 1980 the Mujahideen even appeared at the annual Tucson, Arizona,  Gem & Mineral Show. Rumors abounded about U.S. Central Intelligence Agency aid in their endeavor.

I learned in the 1970’s about the Lithium pegmatites in Afghanistan and the 1982 GAC/MAC short course on pegmatites we used it as references. The cited maps were of Russian investigations into the Lithium deposits and were lacking detail so they could just be published outside of Russia in their various Journals. What did emerge from their mapping was that they were very large, kilometers in length, up to 40 meters thick and at least 100 meters in depth extent. And very rich in gemstones, as well as Lithium, Cesium, and Tantalum or what we now call LCT pegmatites.

Between 1979 and the withdrawal now of U.S. troops, the U.S. Geological Survey had latterly been touting 1 trillion dollars worth of resources in Afghanistan, undoubtedly hoping to lure in some economic development.

I decided to brush up on my knowledge of the Aghan pegmatites after 40 years. Here’s what I found:

And from the very trustworthy British Geological Survey at:


After further frustrated digging I found some selected information published in the 2020 Afghan Journal of Minerals in Afghanistan. Note the brine and playa lithium deposits in western Afghanistan. One has been described as larger than the  Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia.

Squinting more closely:

The upshots of this work are: yes there are lithium deposits in Afghanistan, some of which are over a kilometer long and as described over 40 meters thick and probably extend at least 100 meters downward. They are LCT pegmatites and carry various sorts of gem minerals, like Hiddenite, a variety of petalite which commands more per carat than equivalent diamonds and is named after Hiddenite, North Carolina. They also contain beryl, emeralds, morganite beryl, polychrome tourmalines, kunzite is another petalite gem, and potentially economic spodumene, tantalite, and pollucite some resources of which are shown below.

For the resources tabulated by the BGS below, contact information is also provided!

Sadly what has been an interesting business in trafficking gem, gemstock and collector material through the Tucson Gem & Mineral Show was stopped due to Covid:19

and it may never be the same until Afghanistan changes governments again.